Chevron B27 car-by-car histories
The 1974 Formula 2 Chevron B27 was only a minor upgrade to the B25, with sleeker bodywork and a few technical changes. It showed some promise in F2, but did much better in Formula Atlantic, winning races in the US and in Britain.
After the one-piece bodywork of its predecessor, the Chevron B25, the B27 had more practical two-piece GRP bodywork, with separate nose and cockpit pieces. As this was a simple upgrade, most B25s were updated with B27 bodywork for 1974. The main visible difference was stepped wings on the nose. Of the 16 cars built, nine went into North American Formula Atlantic, most via Fred Opert; three into British Formula Atlantic; two to Team Harper for Formula 2; one to the Baty team for Tom Pryce in F2; and one was sold for hillclimbs.
The B27 was not a dramatic success, but it continued to build Chevron's reputation for building formula cars. In Canada, Allan Lader won the opening round of the Players Formula Atlantic series, Bill Brack later dominated a round at Halifax, and Bertil Roos, Howdy Holmes, Bobby Brown and Jean-Pierre Jaussaud were all competitive in that category. In Europe, David Purley had three second-placed finishes in Team Harper's Formula 2 Chevron B27s, and also finished second at Macau at the end of the year. Jim Crawford drove Fred Opert's B27 to victory in two late-season rounds of the MCD/Southern Organs Formula Atlantic championship.
There is still a huge amount we do not know about these cars. Please email Allen at firstname.lastname@example.org if you can add anything.
Sold to Bob Marsland (Bromsgrove, Worcestershire) to use in European F2 championship in 1974. Retained for Marsland for 1975. Sold to Francis Polak for Belgian courses de côte, winning the 1976 Belgian championship. Retained by Polak for 1977, but then sold to Gérard Burgraff for the 1978 Belgian season, when he finished fourth in the series using a 1800cc Cosworth engine. To Nick Crossley for renovation and then to Paul Newton. Sold to Alan Bell (Lymm, Cheshire) in November 2003. Sold from Bell to Michael Bletsoe-Brown in 2011 and since converted to inboard rear brakes and the roll hoop has forward facing supports. Raced by Michael Bletsoe-Brown in the Derek Bell Trophy race at Silverstone 18 October 2014. Raced in HSCC HIstoric F1 in 2016 and at Dijon in October 2017.
Driven by: Bob Marsland, Francis Polak and E Vautrin. First race: Hockenheim (R2), 7 Apr 1974. Total of 6 recorded races.
Chevron build record says sold via Fred Opert to Freeman Racing (Yellow Springs, OH). However, either never delivered or bought back by Opert in 1974 and used by Jean-Pierre Jaussaud at Trois Rivieres and Richard Melville at Watkins Glen. Advertised by Opert in April 1975 as "ex-Jaussaud", "only two races". Retained by the Opert team for 1975, and used twice by Tom Bagley at Halifax and Trois Rivieres, where his car is described as "ex Jaussaud". Believed to be Michael Landrum's B27 at Road Atlanta in April 1976 in the IMSA series. Then advertised by Pierre Phillips Autoweek 31 July 76 p28 'ex Bagley'. Subsequently to Frank Scott (Racine, WI) for sale AW 9 Oct 1976 p27 B27 'ex Jaussaud, 8 races from new' and 31 Mar 1978 p39. Sold to Richard Ellingson and used in Mid West SCCA until 1980. Then to an autocrosser and subsequently to Paul Berg (Chippewa Falls, WI), who won the MCSCC F/Atlantic series in 1982 with the car. Owned by Bob Dupré (Glenview IL) 1985 and said to have been written off at Road America that year.
Driven by: Jean-Pierre Jaussaud, Richard Melville, Tom Bagley, Michael Landrum and Frank Scott. First race: Trois-Rivières, 1 Sep 1974. Total of 5 recorded races.
New to Doug Shierson Racing via Fred Opert for Chip Mead (Dayton, OH) to race in Formula Atlantic, initially in the opening races of the British series, then in North America. The car was blue and ran in North America as #23. Sold to Keith Feldott (LaGrange, IL) and raced in SCCA Central Division FB in 1975, 1976 and 1977. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Chip Mead and Keith Feldott. First race: Mallory Park (R1), 10 Mar 1974. Total of 21 recorded races.
Chevron build record says sold via Fred Opert to Doug Shierson Racing. According to Chevron the car used by James King at Mallory Park before being shipped to the USA. (King and Mead owned their own cars in the Shierson team.) Badly damaged by King at Mosport in July 1974 and rebuilt around a new tub. Formula Mar 75 p29 reports, 'King is trying to sell the B27 he drove in 1974 under Shierson's management'. (King still has the plate for this car.) Sold to Lloyd Callaway (Chicago, IL) and used in 1975 early 1976 SCCA and some pro races. Callaway advises that the car was sold to Fred Opert in early 1976 in p/x for a new Chevron B34. History then unknown. Many years later, in 1999, Sandy Dells Racing (San Diego, CA) sold two B27 tubs to Jim Sparks (San Diego, CA). Dells restored one of these to running condition for Sparks, then sold the other tub and parts on Sparks' behalf to Mike Winebrenner (Louisville, KY) in 2004. Winebrenner was able to identify his monocoque by its SCCA Chicago Region stamping as Lloyd Calloway's car, but the 74-04 chassis plate is on Sparks' car. Winebrenner's parts were sold in early 2009 to Bud Morrison, who already owned 74-05 and 74-07. It would appear that Sparks' car is built on the original tub, and Morrison's is the replacement tub. Sparks' car was for sale in July 2017.
Driven by: James King and Lloyd Callaway. First race: Mallory Park (R1), 10 Mar 1974. Total of 19 recorded races.
An Fred Opert team car, used by Hugh "Wink" Bancroft (Costa Mesa, CA) in the US series in 1974. Possibly also used by Roos and James Crawley in SCCA Formula B before the Canadian season started. The car was owned by Bancroft, who according to Formula and Sports Car retained it unraced in 1975, and then wheeled it out again for a few SCCA So Pac division races in early 1976. Advertised in May 1976. Possibly the Mike Morris car in 1977. The car now owned by Bud Morrison has a SCCA log book showing it was owned by Ken Valan in 1978, then Frank Shober (Chatham, NJ) from 1979 to 1985. In October 1988, it was bought from Bruce McQuiston at the Bertil Roos Racing School (Blakeslee PA) by Monte C. Shalett (New Orleans, LA), who sold it via Grand Prix Classics (La Jolla, CA) to Paul Wesselink (Dana Point, CA/Huntington Beach, CA) in June 1997. From Wesselink to Bud Morrison in May 2005. Still with Morrison in February 2009.
Driven by: Hugh "Wink" Bancroft, Frank Shober and Bruce McQuiston. First race: Mallory Park (R1), 10 Mar 1974. Total of 16 recorded races.
New to Fred Opert Racing and the car raced by Bertil Roos in the British Formula Atlantic race at Brands Hatch in mid-March. Then fitted with a 2-litre Brian Hart Ford BDA for Roos at two F2 races, Montjuich Park and Hockenheim. Apparantly returned to Formula Atlantic specification and run by the Opert team in the UK series, initially for Héctor Rebaque, and later for Johnny Kastner, William Henderson III and then local man Jim Crawford. Sold to Derek Cook (Rotherham, South Yorkshire) for early 1975 Formula Atlantic races before being replaced by a newer B29. Retained for 1976 when Cook ran it in Indylantic, Shellsport G8, and libre racing, with either a Formula Atlantic BDA or a self-built 2-litre BDA. Retained again for early 1977 and used in F2 and in Shellsport, now with a 2-litre Alan Smith BDG, before Cook acquired a F1 Williams. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Bertil Roos, Héctor Rebaque, Johnny Kastner, William Henderson III, Jim Crawford and Derek Cook. First race: Brands Hatch (R2), 17 Mar 1974. Total of 44 recorded races.
Chevron build record says sold via Fred Opert to George Sabin. Used by Alan Lader as well in 1974. Sold to Bobby Fisher (Lafayette, CA) for 1975 and used in some early-season Nationals and one Pro race. To Jim Van Horn (Orange, CA) for 1976 and run in west coast Pro and SCCA racing. Then a strong candidate for the car of Californian Mike Morris in SCCA races in 1977 though this may have been the ex Hayes car from 1975-76. Either this or the Hayes car likely to be the B27 for sale by Crosslé Cars Pacific in 1982. In February 2007, Bud Morrison bought what he believes to be B27-74-07 from Neil Johnson via Fantasy Junction (Emeryville, CA). Still with Morrison in February 2009.
Driven by: Allan Lader, George Sabin, Bobby Fisher and Jim van Horn. First race: Westwood (R1), 26 May 1974. Total of 8 recorded races.
New to Fred Opert Racing and raced by US-domiciled Swede Bertil Roos in North American Formula Atlantic, and later in the season by a number of guest drivers, including Richard Melville, Bill Brack and Héctor Rebaque. This is then believed to be the car used by Jim Crawley (Frenchtown, NJ) in a number of SCCA Nationals in 1975, allowing him to qualify for the FB Run-Offs. At the same time, Crawley raced a newer B29 in the British series, The B27 was advertised by George Walsh of Intercontinental Marketing, Crawley's sponsor at the Run-Offs, describing it as ex-Roos, ex-Crawley and noting track records at Bridgehampton and Palm Beach. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Bertil Roos, Richard Melville, Bill Brack and Héctor Rebaque. First race: Westwood (R1), 26 May 1974. Total of 9 recorded races.
Sold to Team Harper, and used by Dieter Quester in the European F2 championship. Also driven by Tom Pryce and badly damaged at Enna; returned to works and rebuilt for Jim Crawford to use at Nogaro late in 1974. Probably the car taken to Macau by Team Harper for Purley in November 1974. Subsequent history unknown, but since 2006 (and quite possibly earlier), there has been a Chevron B27 in Team Harper livery in the Macau Grand Prix Museum.
Driven by: Dieter Quester, Tom Pryce, Jim Crawford and David Purley. First race: Salzburgring (R4), 2 Jun 1974. Total of 10 recorded races.
Sold in May 1974 to Team Harper, and used by David Purley in the European F2 championship. Probably the car driven by David Purley at the Brands Hatch Boxing Day libre race at the end of the season. Likely to be the "late 1974 F2 car" used by Doug Thomson (Edinburgh, Scotland) in Scottish libre, sprints and hillclimbs in 1975, and offered for sale in January 1976 with a Swindon BDA and Hewland FGA400 gearbox. This is then likely to be the car of UK-resident American Bob Brown (not Bobby Brown) who occasionally raced what is described by Autosport as an ex-Harper B27 in Indyatlantic and Formula Libre in 1976, after buying the car late in 1975. Brown was backed by Oceaneering International, a Texas company, and is believed to have been a diver working in the North Sea oil field. He appears to have taken the car back to the US. Then unknown until an "ex-Purley" B27 was raced by Bobby Brown in SVRA and HSR vintage racing. Sold to Skip Jones (Portland, OR) and used in ICSCC and SOVREN vintage racing, fitted with a 2-litre Wenz Cosworth YBM engine. Sold in August 2016 back to Bobby Brown.
Driven by: David Purley, Doug Thomson and Bob Brown. First race: Salzburgring (R4), 2 Jun 1974. Total of 24 recorded races.
Built for Chris Marshall's Baty/Ottershaw Motors team as a quasi-works car in European F2 championship, fitted with a Schnitzer BMW engine, and driven by Tom Pryce at Salzburgring, Hockenheim and Mugello, and by James Hunt at Rouen-les-Essarts. The team dropped out in August, and the car was used briefly as a development car by Derek Bennett. Harald Ertl hired the car for Hockenheim in September 1974, and then took it over for the early F2 races in 1975. Retained unraced by Ertl until his death. Bought from the Ertl estate by American Jack Perkins (San Jose, CA) in the early 1990s. Perkins had the tub disassembled, reglued and re-riveted by Mark Bahner, and had its BMW M12/7 engine and Hewland FG400 gearbox overhauled by Dave Vegher and Veloce Motors West. Advertised by Perkins on eBay in 2012.
Driven by: Tom Pryce, James Hunt and Harald Ertl. First race: Salzburgring (R4), 2 Jun 1974. Total of 9 recorded races.
Chevron build record says sold to Derek Cook, August 1974, so Cook's late season car in British Formula Atlantic. To Peter Munro for 1975, and loaned back to Cook at the British GP meeting after he had wrecked his own car in practice. Cook then managed to wreck the Chevron on lap 1 of the race, and it did not appear again in 1975. To Jeremy Sumner for the 1976 Indyatlantic series, where it was also driven by Mike Wilds and John Scannell. Thought to have been the B27 bought by Christian Bonnifet in 1977, and used in French hillclimbs between 1979 and 1983. In 1997, Jean-Michel Coll (Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France) advertised chassis 74-14 as a rolling chassis. It was later reported to be under restoration in the UK.
Driven by: Derek Cook, Peter Munro, Mike Wilds, Jeremy Sumner and John Scannell. First race: Croft, 7 Oct 1974. Total of 18 recorded races.
Consigned to Fred Opert in July 1974 for "a Californian SCCA driver", so almost certainly the Fred Opert #8 team car that appears in Formula Atlantic in July 1974 for Howdy Holmes, and was described as 'brand new'. Used by Tom Pryce at Trois Rivieres on 1 Sep, and badly damaged. Presumably rebuilt for Holmes at Watkins Glen on 4 Oct. Advertised by Opert in April 1975 as "ex-Holmes" and "4 races from new". Very probably the car sold to Dan Neuman (St Paul, Minnesota) early 1975, and advertised by Neuman as "ex-Pryce" in 1976. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Howdy Holmes and Tom Pryce. First race: St Johns (R6), 27 Jul 1974. Total of 4 recorded races.
Sold to Peter Williams (Brentwood, Essex) in June 1974 for British Formula Atlantic; and retained for the 1975 season. To Porsche racer and driving instructor Mike Franey (London) later in 1975 and raced in F/Atlantic with Samatco Ltd backing. Unknown in 1976, but in early 1977, novice racer Martin Murphy won a Formule Libre race at Thruxton in the "ex-Peter Williams Coin Monthly" B27. Subsequent history unknown, but reportedly owned by Phil Sharp for hillclimbs in 1984.
Driven by: Peter Williams, Mike Franey and Martin Murphy. First race: Silverstone (R3), 30 Jun 1974. Total of 32 recorded races.
Chevron build record says sold to Peter Broeker, June 1974. This car was destroyed in a trailer fire in late 1974 on the way to Trois Rivieres.
Driven by: Peter W. Broeker. First race: Gimli (R3), 16 Jun 1974. Total of 5 recorded races.
Chevron build record says sold to Bobby Brown of B&B Racing Enterprises, June 1974. The car was badly damaged in an accident at Trois Rivieres in 1974. Brown says that the remains were returned to Chevron in p/x for two B29s in 1975. However, advertised by Brown in May and June 1975 as 'not raced since complete rebuild at Chevron' which suggests that the car came back to him. Sold later in 1975 to Thomas Christ (Racine, WI), and raced by him in Pro Formula Atlantic and SCCA Nationals in 1976 and 1977. Then unknown until owned by Daniel Sauriol (Appleton, WI) in 1984. Sold to Cliff Ebben (Appleton, WI) at the end of the 1984 season, then sold by him to Comprep (i.e. Dennis Eade of ComPrep (Competition Preparation) in Zenda, WI) for ComPrep customer Alan Lewis (Indianapolis, IN). Run by ComPrep for Eade. Sold to Alan Azar (O'Fallon, IL) in 1999. With dealer Chuck Haines of Can-Am Cars Ltd (St. Louis, MO) in 2018.
Driven by: Bobby Brown, Tom Christ, Daniel Sauriol and Cliff Ebben. First race: Mosport Park (R4), 2 Jul 1974. Total of 8 recorded races.
The 1975-1976 mystery cars
Of the 16 Chevron B27s built in 1974, four had been built for F2 in Europe (74-01, 74-09, 74-10, 74-12) three for Formula Atlantic in the UK (74-06, 74-14, 74-16), and nine for Formula Atlantic in the US (74-02, 74-03, 74-04, 74-05, 74-07, 74-08, 74-15, 74-17 and 74-18). Of the F2 cars, 74-01 remained in Bob Marsland's hands until heading off to Belgium for hillclimbs in 1976, and the ex-Tom Pryce 74-12 went to Harald Ertl and remained with him. That leaves the two ex-Harper cars which are slightly trickier. One appears to have gone to Doug Thomson for Scottish hillclimbs and may later have been used in British Indylantic before heading off to the US. The other may have been rebuilt into a Formula Vee, but it's always possible that it never came back after the Macau GP.
The two late-season British Formula Atlantic cars, Derek Cook's 74-14 and Peter Williams' 74-16, were both in Britain in 1976, and then appeared to have headed into hillclimbs, one in Britain and one in France. Fred Opert's UK-based 74-06 went to Derek Cook and remained with him until early 1977.
That leaves the nine cars in the US, of which the simplest is 74-17 which was Peter Broeker's car and was destroyed by fire. Of the others: 74-02 went to Freeman Racing but appears to have come back to the Opert team, after which it can be tracked until 1985; 74-03 was the Doug Shierson Racing (DSR) car for Chip Mead that was with Keith Feldott in 1977; 74-04 was the DSR car for James King which was with Lloyd Callaway until early 1976; 74-05 was Wink Bancroft's car in 1974 and may have been retained by him into 1976; 74-07 went from George Sabin to Bobby Fisher to Jim Van Horn in 1976; 74-08 was Bertil Roos' and may also have been kept by Roos to be used later in Can-Am; 74-15 was probably Howdy Holmes' later season car and may then have gone to Dan Neuman for 1975; and 74-18 which went to Bobby Brown but was crashed, repaired at the Chevron factory, and sold to Tom Christ.
The main puzzle in 1975 is Dick Hayes' car, which may be yet another Fred Opert team car that somehow escaped Chevron records. Later in 1975, Ronald Remeeus hired a car for the British Formula Atlantic series, which appears to have been the Derek Cook car.
'the Dick Hayes car'
Dick Hayes (Huntingdon Beach, CA) raced a Chevron in SCCA Nationals and one IMSA Pro race in 1975 and 1976. It was described as an "ex-Howdy Holmes B27" by Finish Line in 1975, and a photograph shows that it was dark blue with dark green sidepods when it appeared at Ontario in May 1976. However, the car Holmes drove was also driven by Tom Pryce at Trois-Rivières, and an ex-Pryce car was owned by Dan Neuman in 1975 and 1976. So it is possible that the car Holmes drove at Watkins Glen in October 1974 was a new car, unrecorded in Chevron records, and this is what went to Hayes. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Dick Hayes. First race: Riverside, 25 May 1975. Total of 7 recorded races.
'the Ronald Remeeus car'
From August to October 1975, Ashtune Race Hire entered a Chevron B27 in Formula Atlantic races for Dutch Formula Ford racer Ronald Remeeus. Remeeus rarely appeared, and his car has not been identified. However, the clue may be that the car's engine was identified as a Cook-built BDA, and the only other Cook BDA seen in 1975 had been in Derek Cook's Chevron B27, which had replaced with a newer car earlier in 1975. Cook returned to the B27 in early 1976, suggesting he had rented it to Ashtune Race Hire for the latter half of 1975.
Driven by: Ronald Remeeus. First race: Snetterton (R5), 10 Aug 1975. Only one recorded race.
The later mystery cars
The Chicago and Wisconsin area had attracted a surprising number of Chevron B27s. At Road America's June Sprints in 1977, Frank Scott, Keith Feldott, Tom Christ and Tom Cooney were all present in Chevron B27s. Scott, of Racine, WI, had the ex-Freeman Racing chassis 74-02, Feldott of LaGrange, a suburb of Chicago, had the ex-Shierson Racing/Chip Mead chassis 74-03 from 1975 to 1977, and Christ, also from Racine, WI, had the ex-Bobby Brown 74-18. That leaves Tom Cooney, from further southeast in Indianapolis, Indiana, whose car has not yet been identified with complete confidence, but could have been the sister Shierson Racing/James King car, 74-04, as owned by Lloyd Callaway of Chicago in 1975 and early 1976.
After 1977, the next mystery is Bertil Roos' Can-Am car, which was fenders attached to a 1600cc Formula Atlantic Chevron B27. One distinct possibility is that he had kept 74-08, the car he had raced in 1974. The other 1979 mystery is Christian Bonnifet, which looks likely to have been 74-14.
'the Mike Morris car'
Mike Morris raced a Chevron in a SCCA National at Riverside in February 1977, which Chris Townsend has identified as a B27. Nothing more known.
Driven by: Michael Morris. First race: Riverside, 13 Feb 1977. Only one recorded race.
'the Tom Cooney car'
Tom Cooney (Indianapolis, IN) ran a Chevron B27 in Central Div SCCA from 1977 to 1982 or later. Nothing more known.
Driven by: Tom Cooney. First appearance: Road America, 5 Jun 1977.
'the Bertil Roos 1979 Can-Am car'
Bertil Roos (Blakeslee, PA) had raced a Chevron B27 for the Fred Opert team in 1974, after which he had raced for a number of different teams in Formula Atlantic and even Indy racing. In early 1979, he won the SCCA 'Bonus' National at Charlotte in an old Formula Atlantic B27, quite possibly the car he had raced for Opert. He then attached fenders to the car and used it in Can-Am, still with its 1600cc Cosworth BDD engine. Roos bought a different Chevron B27 for 1980, and, according to Doug Waters, his 1979 car was sold to someone in California who planned to use it as a sports car with an Alfa Romeo V8 engine. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Bertil Roos. First race: Charlotte, 1 Apr 1979. Total of 3 recorded races.
'the Christian Bonnifet car'
In 1979, Christian Bonnifet (Vendée, France) bought a Chevron B27 in England in 1977, fitted with a new tub, FT200 gearbox and fresh Cosworth 1600cc engine. He raced the car in minor regional events in 1979, and in 1980, when he also competed at national events in his area, such as Bournezeau-Vendée and Corcoué-sur-Logne in May. He competed again at Bournezeau-Vendée in May 1981. He retained the car until 1983.
Driven by: Christian Bonnifet. First race: Fréteval, 17 Jun 1979. Total of 14 recorded races.
'the Bertil Roos 1980 Can-Am car'
Having raced a Chevron B27 with a 1.6-litre Cosworth BDD and fenders in Can-Am in 1979, Bertil Roos (Blakeslee, PA) acquired another Chevron B27 for 1980, and fitted a full sports car body and a 2-litre Hart 420R engine. He raced this six times in Can-Am in 1980, finishing in the top 10 every time. According to Doug Waters, this 1980 car was sold to someone in Pennsylvania for regional racing. Subsequent history unknown.
Driven by: Bertil Roos. First race: Mid-Ohio (Can-Am R2), 8 Jun 1980. Total of 7 recorded races.
'the Alex Lowe Formula Vee car'
Alex Lowe acquired "the ex-Jim Crawford" Chevron B27 and rebuilt it as a Formula Vee. Advertised in that form by Lowe in July 1983. Subsequent history unknown. This could be B27-74-06, the Fred Opert Racing Formula Atlantic car raced by Crawford a few times in late-1974 and last seen in Derek Cook's hands in 1977, or could be the Team Harper F2 B27 raced by Crawford at Nogaro in November 1974 and likely to have gone to Doug Thomson in Scotland, and then to American ex-pat Bob Brown for 1976. However, Bob Brown is thought to have taken his car back to the US, so the ex-Derek Cook 74-06 is the most likely.
Current cars with incomplete provenance
'the Johnnie Crean car'
A car bought from the late J. David Kopf (Tujungam, CA) by Johnnie Crean (Kamuela, Hawaii) in 1998. According to a later advert, Kopf had owned it for over ten years, but had not raced it, and it was believed to be 74-02. Kopf died in 2004. The Chevron was rebuilt for Crean with a new monocoque by Michael Collins. This car sold to Philippe Reyns (Chandler, AZ) in October 2008. Raced by Reyns in vintage racing events in the Pacific Northwest with red bodywork and wearing #35. Raced at the SVRA U.S. Vintage Racing National Championships in Austin, Texas in November 2015, and at the Portland Vintage Racing Festival in July 2016, but damaged in an incident in 2016.
In addition to the above, an unknown Chevron B27 was driven by Rick Stone.
These histories were initially researched by Chris Townsend. Thanks also to Philippe Demeyer, James Murray, Marcus Pye, Simon Hadfield, David Hutson, Steve Wilkinson, Dan Rear, Bryan Miller, Alan Brown and Richard Cooke for their contributions; to current owners Bud Morrison and Mike Winebrenner and to former owners Paul Henry, Bobby Brown, Alan Bell, and Brad Ellingson for their assistance.
These histories last updated on .