OldRacingCars.com

California 500

Ontario Motor Speedway, 9 Mar 1975

ResultsLapsTime/Speed
1 AJ Foyt Coyote 74 ['74-2'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
#14 Gilmore Racing [Foyt Enterprises]
(see note 1)
200 3h 14m 22.280s
2 Bobby Unser Eagle 74 [7404 or 7405] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#48 Jorgensen Steel [AAR]
200 Finished
3 Steve Krisiloff Eagle 72 [7218] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#98 Lodestar [Agajanian/Leader Card]
(see note 2)
197 Flagged
4 Lee Kunzman Eagle 72 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#55 Cobre Tire [Fletcher Racing Team]
(see note 3)
195 Flagged
5 John Martin McLaren M16B [3] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#89 Unsponsored [John Martin] (see note 4)
193 Flagged
6 Tom Sneva McLaren M16C [1] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#68 Norton Spirit [Penske Racing]
(see note 5)
193 Flagged
7 Al Loquasto McLaren M16C [M16-1?] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#86 Frostie Root Beer [Al Loquasto Sr.]
(see note 6)
188 Flagged
8 David "Salt" Walther McLaren M16C/D [6] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#77 Dayton-Walther [George Walther]
(see note 7)
187 Flagged
9 Eldon Rasmussen RasCar-Atlanta 74 - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
#58 Ras-Car [Eldon Rasmussen] (see note 8)
186 Flagged
10 Wally Dallenbach Eagle 74 [7403] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#40 Sinmast [Patrick Racing] (see note 9)
184 Burned piston
11 Mike Mosley Eagle 74 [7407] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#12 Sugaripe Prune [Jerry O'Connell/Jud Phillips]
(see note 10)
179 Burned piston
12 Jerry Grant Eagle 73 [7306] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#73 Spirit of Orange County [Fred W. Carrillo]
(see note 11)
178 Flagged
13 Roger McCluskey Riley 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#15 Silver Floss Sauerkraut [Lindsey Hopkins]
(see note 12)
170 Blown engine
14 Gary Bettenhausen Eagle 72 [7216] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#45 Thermo King [Don Gerhardt] (see note 13)
168 Flagged
15 Gordon Johncock Wildcat Mk 1 - DGS 158 ci turbo
#20 Sinmast [Patrick Racing] (see note 14)
149 Broken radiator hose
16 Tom Bigelow Vollstedt 73 [13] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#27 T. H. Wilson Development [Vollstedt Enterprise]
(see note 15)
123 Lost oil pressure
17 Johnny Rutherford McLaren M16E [001] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#2 Gatorade [McLaren Cars] (see note 16)
86 Burned piston
18 Jim McElreath Eagle 72 [7205] - Chevrolet 203 ci turbo Crower V8
#23 Crower Cams [Bruce H. Crower]
(see note 17)
84 Broken connecting rod
19 Duane "Pancho" Carter Eagle 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#11 Cobre Tire [Fletcher Racing Team]
(see note 18)
83 Broken gearbox
20 George Snider Eagle 72 [7221] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#97 Lodestar [Agajanian/Leader Card]
(see note 19)
58 Overheated
21 Jimmy Caruthers Eagle 72 [7226] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#78 Alex Foods [Alex Morales] (see note 20)
54 Broken valve
22 Lee Brayton Coyote 70 ['70-1'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
#29 Unsponsored (see note 21)
46 Black flag, too slow
23 Billy Vukovich Eagle 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#6 Cobre Tire [Fletcher Racing Team]
(see note 22)
39 Burned piston
24 Dick Simon Eagle 72 [7212] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
#44 Unsponsored [Dick Simon] (see note 23)
37 Burned piston
25 Johnny Parsons Jr Finley 73 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#94 Vatis [Tassi Vatis] (see note 24)
34 Broken gearbox
26 Al Unser Eagle 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#4 Viceroy [Vel's Parnelli Jones]
(see note 25)
24 Burned piston
27 Rick Muther Coyote 74 ['74-1'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
#10 Gilmore Racing [Foyt Enterprises]
(see note 26)
17 Clutch slipping
28 Mario Andretti Eagle 74 [7406] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#21 Viceroy [Vel's Parnelli Jones]
(see note 27)
15 Broken connecting rod
29 Billy Scott Eagle 72 [7202] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#76 Webster Racing [Marvin Webster]
(see note 28)
7 Burned piston
30 Bob Harkey Gerhardt 68 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#99 Joe Hunt Magneto [Joe Hunt]
(see note 29)
5 Wheel bearing
31 Larry McCoy McLaren M16C [M16C-2?] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#33 Dayton-Walther [George Walther]
(see note 30)
3 Lost oil pressure
32 Bobby Allison McLaren M16C [3] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#16 CAM2 Motor Oil [Penske Racing]
(see note 31)
2 Broken valve
33 Jerry Karl Kingfish 72 ['2'] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#38 Midwest Durapot [Carl Gehlhausen]
(see note 32)
1 Burned piston
DNS George Follmer Eagle 72 [7219] - Offy 159 ci turbo
#28 American Kids Racer [Richard Beith]
(see note 33)
Did not start
(DNS, wreck qual race)
DNP Joe Leonard Coyote 74 ['74-1'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
#10 Gilmore Racing [Foyt Enterprises]
(see note 34)
Did not take part in official practice
(failed medical examination)
  TBA Vollstedt - Offy 159 ci turbo
#17 [Vollstedt Enterprises]
On entry list
  Dan Murphy Cicada 75 - Offy 159 ci turbo
#25 [Cicada] (see note 35)
On entry list
Qualifying
1 AJ Foyt Coyote 74 ['74-2'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
2 Bobby Unser Eagle 74 [7404 or 7405] - Offy 159 ci turbo
3 Al Unser Eagle 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
4 Wally Dallenbach Eagle 74 [7403] - Offy 159 ci turbo
5 Johnny Rutherford McLaren M16E [001] - Offy 159 ci turbo
6 Duane "Pancho" Carter Eagle 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
7 Steve Krisiloff Eagle 72 [7218] - Offy 159 ci turbo
8 Billy Vukovich Eagle 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
9 Jimmy Caruthers Eagle 72 [7226] - Offy 159 ci turbo
10 Gordon Johncock Wildcat Mk 1 - DGS 158 ci turbo
11 Bobby Allison McLaren M16C [3] - Offy 159 ci turbo
12 John Martin McLaren M16B [3] - Offy 159 ci turbo
13 Roger McCluskey Riley 74 - Offy 159 ci turbo
14 Tom Sneva McLaren M16C [1] - Offy 159 ci turbo
15 Mike Mosley Eagle 74 [7407] - Offy 159 ci turbo
16 David "Salt" Walther McLaren M16C/D [6] - Offy 159 ci turbo
17 Johnny Parsons Jr Finley 73 - Offy 159 ci turbo
18 Mario Andretti Eagle 74 [7406] - Offy 159 ci turbo
19 Lee Kunzman Eagle 72 - Offy 159 ci turbo
20 Billy Scott Eagle 72 [7202] - Offy 159 ci turbo
21 Jerry Karl Kingfish 72 ['2'] - Offy 159 ci turbo
22 Tom Bigelow Vollstedt 73 [13] - Offy 159 ci turbo
23 Dick Simon Eagle 72 [7212] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
24 Al Loquasto McLaren M16C [M16-1?] - Offy 159 ci turbo
25 Eldon Rasmussen RasCar-Atlanta 74 - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
26 Gary Bettenhausen Eagle 72 [7216] - Offy 159 ci turbo
27 Lee Brayton Coyote 70 ['70-1'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
28 Jerry Grant Eagle 73 [7306] - Offy 159 ci turbo
29 Rick Muther Coyote 74 ['74-1'] - Foyt-Ford 159 ci quad cam turbo V8
30 Bob Harkey Gerhardt 68 - Offy 159 ci turbo
31 George Snider Eagle 72 [7221] - Offy 159 ci turbo
32 Jim McElreath Eagle 72 [7205] - Chevrolet 203 ci turbo Crower V8
33 Larry McCoy McLaren M16C [M16C-2?] - Offy 159 ci turbo
34 George Follmer * Eagle 72 [7219] - Offy 159 ci turbo
 
* Did not start

Notes on the cars:

  1. Coyote 74 ['74-2'] (AJ Foyt): New for AJ Foyt at the 1974 Indy 500 as Foyt Enterprises' #14 Gilmore Racing entry. Photographs show that it was also raced by Foyt at Milwaukee in June, Pocono, Michigan in July, Milwaukee in August, probably Michigan again in September, Trenton in September and Phoenix in November. It was also used to set a new record speedway lap of 217.854 mph at Talladega on 3 August 1974. Photographs also show that this was one of three cars used by Foyt during the 1975 season: at Ontario in March, as his #10 backup car at the Indy 500, and at both Michigan races in July and September 1975. In 1976, Foyt raced the older 1974 car at early-season short track races and the newer 1975 car at the Indy 500, but used this car for every race from Pocono in June to the end of the season. In 1977, it was raced by Foyt at Ontario and Phoenix in March, TWS in April, Pocono, Mosport, and Trenton in September; and by Billy Vukovich at the Indy 500. In 1978, it was raced by Foyt at Phoenix in March, Trenton in April, Mosport, and Milwaukee in June, by Snider at Pocono, and probably at Michigan, where he hit the wall. It may be the car raced by Foyt in the August Milwaukee and by George Snider in the two races in Britain in October 1978, but this remains uncertain. Foyt then bought Parnelli VPJ6Cs, and the Coyotes were finally retired. This car passed to Foyt's long-time sponsor Jim Gilmore and was on display in his second-floor office in Kalamazoo, Michigan, and was in his living room at his home by 1985. After Gilmore died in a traffic accident in 2001, the Coyote moved to the Gilmore Museum, also in Kalamazoo, which had been founded by his uncle, Donald S. Gilmore in 1966. Its display board calls it a 1974 car, and that it was the Talladega record car.
  2. Eagle 72 [7218] (Steve Krisiloff): New to Leader Card Racers in time for the 1973 Indy 500 where it was Mike Mosley's #98 Leader Card entry. Raced by Mosley at Pocono and at Ontario, and then at the late-season races. Presumably his car at Ontario in March 1974, after which he used a new 1974 Eagle, and this 1972 Eagle was not seen again in 1974. After the 1974 car was wrecked, this car reappeared for Steve Krisiloff at Ontario in March 1975 as the #98 entry, then for George Snider as the #97 at three more races. Taken to the 1976 Indy 500 as a backup and qualified by Tom Bigelow, and may have been used by Bigelow at some short track races that year as the #24 entry. Although Leader Card now had two 1974 Eagles, this old 1972 car was present at the Indy 500 again in 1977 as the #23 entry but was crashed heavily in practice on 16 May by Gary Irwin and "damaged extensively". Repaired and then acquired by Warner Hodgdon, who had sponsored Mike Hiss in Leader Card's '74 car in 1976. Retained by Hodgdon until his death in 2013, and acquired from the estate by Jeff Urwin (New York, NY). The car was inspected at GE Autosport's shop at Indianapolis in November 2014 by Jacques Dresang, who found traces of Leader Card livery and USAC stickers that tied it to Gary Irwin's 1977 Indy 500 entry.
  3. Eagle 72 (Lee Kunzman): One of two 1972 Eagles bought by Robert L. 'Bob' Fletcher and chief crew Clint Brawner for Fletcher's new Cobre Firestone team in 1973. This car arrived in time for the race at Texas World Speedway at the start of April so is likely to be chassis 7214. Entered at TWS as the #21 entry for Jimmy Caruthers, and it is assumed that this was the same #21 entered for him at Trenton and at the Indy 500. After Art Pollard's accident in the sister car, this was Fletcher's only remaining 1972 car and it was driven by Caruthers for the rest of 1973, then by Duane "Pancho" Carter at the Indy 500 in 1974. It is likely to be the car raced by Carter later in the season but he might have been allocated one of the team's 1974 Eagles. The car was renumbered #55 for 1975 and entered for Lee Kunzman at Ontario, where he finished third in his heat and fourth in the final. Entered also at the Indy 500 but Kunzman did not qualify. The car was not needed again but remained with the team as a show car. It was photographed in Frosty Acres livery, which cannot be earlier than 1979. Subsequent history unknown.
  4. McLaren M16B [3] (John Martin): McLaren Cars 1972 for Gordy Johncock (#24) and 'wrecked' at Ontario. Repaired and sold to John Martin 1973 (#89) and 1974 and 1975. Wrecked at Milwaukee June 1975 and tub "thrown in dumpster". Rebuilt using a M16A monocoque bought from Lindsey Hopkins, first appearing in this form at Pocono three weeks later, and raced by Martin to the end of 1975. This M16B/A was acquired by Danny Jones and Roy Dickinson in 1976 and rebuilt for the 1977 Indy 500. They were then joined by Bill Freeman Racing, appearing on the 1977 Indy 500 entry list as #30 Caesars Palace entry. Bob Harkey failed to qualify the car at Indy and it was raced by Johnny Parsons Jr later in the 1977 season. To Fred Ruth for 1978 and qualified for the Indy 500 by Jerry Sneva in 1978 as the #30 Smock Material entry. Ruth was joined and at some point as co-owner by Marv Schmidt. Returned again in 1979, entered by Thunder Racing and with Molly Mate sponsorship. It was next seen in 1981 when John Martin qualified at the Indy 500 but was bumped. Cliff Hucul ran it later that year as the #57. Then unknown until 1991 when it was owned by Chuck Haines (St Louis, MO) and still in Hucul livery.
  5. McLaren M16C [1] (Tom Sneva): New to Roger Penske for Bobby Allison to drive at the 1973 Indy 500 as the #12 Sunoco DX car. Sold to Roy Woods and appeared at Ontario in August/September 1973 as the #74 Carling entry for John Mahler, who crashed it in the race. It evidently returned to Penske and was rebuilt as the #8 entry for Gary Bettenhausen in 1974. Used by Mike Hiss after Bettenhausen was injured in a dirt race in July 1974. Taken over by Tom Sneva in 1975 as the #68 Norton Spirit entry but wrecked in Sneva's huge accident at Indy in 1975. Rebuilt later in the season and rejoined the Penske team to be a backup car for Sneva in 1976. Its last known appearance was at Michigan in July 1976. History then unknown until 2009 when it was part of the Harrah Collection at the National Automobile Museum (Reno, NV). Presumably it had been bought by Bill Harrah, founder of Harrah's Casinos. After Harah's death in November 1978 his 'Harrah’s Automobile Collection' was acquired by Holiday Inns and started to be broken up and auctioned in the mid-1980s. In response to ensuing outcry, Holiday Inns agreed to donate 175 cars and Harrah's research library to a new Harrah Automobile Foundation and this became the basis of the National Automobile Museum which opened in Reno, Nevada, in 1989. The car is in Sneva's 1977 red, white and blue Norton/Gould/CAM2 livery, suggesting it was used as a show car in 1977.
  6. McLaren M16C [M16-1?] (Al Loquasto): To Roger Penske at the 1971 Indy 500 for Mark Donohue (#66 Sunoco). Donohue retired from the Indy 500 but his car was later "destroyed" when Mike Mosley crashed his Eagle into it. It was said that nothing was salvageable and a new car (M16-4) was built in time for Pocono. However, detailed study of photographs establishes that M16-1 was rebuilt and was raced by Gary Bettenhausen for Penske at short-track races in the first half of 1972. Sold to Roy Woods Racing for John Mahler (#74) at Ontario 1972 but wrecked in the race. Not seen again until entered by Roy Woods for David Hobbs (#73) at Ontario September 1973 then for Mahler (#74) at the 1974 Indy 500 but DNQ. It had been updated to M16C form during this time. Sold to Al Loquasto, replacing the M16B he had previously raced, and used from 1975 to 1978 as Loquasto's #86 Frostie Root Beer entry. Loquasto may have used his M16B at some tracks, but no photographic evidence has yet been found for that. Sold by Loquasto to Robert W. LaWarre Sr. (Titusville, FL) for Tony Bettenhausen II (#86 Tilton) late 1979. History then unknown until the M16 was bought from someone in Florida by Joe Baird (Shelbyville, IN) and a partner in the 1990s, when the car still had Loquasto and LaWarre bodywork. Sold via Jim Mann and Steve Truchan to former Formula Atlantic driver Glen A. Smith (Rockwall, TX) and retained by Smith until his death in 2008, after which his wife sold it to Bob Boyce (Michigan City, Indiana).
  7. McLaren M16C/D [6] (David "Salt" Walther): New in 1974 for McLaren Cars as a M16C/D for David Hobbs to drive at the 1974 Indy 500 as the #73 Carling Black Label entry. Sold to George Walther by early July for Salt Walther to drive and used as his main #77 car at the Indy 500 in 1975, 1976 and 1977. Walther had other McLarens during this time and he is likely to have used those on short tracks. Sold with M16C/2 to Jerry Karl for 1978 and entered as his #88 Offy car at the 1978 Indy 500 with Frank Fiore as chief mechanic and a #89 RasCar/Atlanta as his backup. This was Karl's car at Pocono, Ontario and Trenton later in 1978, and again at five races in 1979. It was modified as a "McLaren-Karl" for 1980 and 1981 but was wrecked at Riverside in August 1981. Karl then used his backup M16C/2 in the last few races of the season. Both M16Cs were sold to Chuck Haines (St Louis, MO) and stored for some years, before undergoing a complete restoration in 2015. Appeared at the Historic Indycar Exhibition in May 2016 in immaculate Carling livery. To Rob Dyson (Millbrook, NY) of Dyson Racing c2017.
  8. RasCar-Atlanta 74 (Eldon Rasmussen): New for Lloyd Ruby at the Jimmy Bryan 150 at Phoenix in March 1972, where it was Gene White Racing's #5 Wynns entry, and then used by him at the Indy 500, where he finished sixth. Ruby then tried the team's Lola T270 at Milwaukee, and tried both cars in practice at Pocono before it was rained off. He then crashed the Atlanta before the race at Michigan in July, and used the Lola for the rest of the season. Almost certainly the Atlanta-Ford sold to Loyd Meek's Quality Racing Team for 1973, where it was due to be enginered and raced by Eldon Rasmussen, but Rasmussen did not appear in the car until Texas in October, where it went very well. Rebuilt by Rasmussen as a "Ras-Car", and thereafter described as a 1974 car. Raced by Rasmussen in the 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977 and 1978 seasons, although he generally only appeared for the longer races at Indianapolis, Ontario, Pocono and Michigan. This is believed to be the car that was demolished in Rasmussen's huge accident at Pocono in 1979.
  9. Eagle 74 [7403] (Wally Dallenbach): New to Patrick Racing and identified by an Indianapolis 'Laycock card' as Wally Dallenbach's #40 STP entry in 1974. Given the early construction date, marked as January on the chassis plate, this car is assumed to be Dallenbach's ride from the start of 1974. Presumably his early-1975 car before the new Wildcats were ready. At Indy 1975 as the #60 spare. Sold to Leader Card Racers for 1976 and George Snider's #23 Hubler Chevrolet ride in that year's 500. Also for Mike Hiss at Ontario. Retained for 1977 and the #64 at the Indy 500 but thought to be the #23 at other races. Retained again for 1978 but wrecked in Tom Bigelow's accident at Mosport Park in June. Bought from AJ Watson by someone called Al in Grand Rapid, Michigan and sold by him to Bill Wiswedel (Holland, Michigan) around 2000-2004. In approximately 2017, Bill sold the car to James Long (Nevada City, CA) and he sold it to Bobby Rahal (Chicago, IL) in 2020.
  10. Eagle 74 [7407] (Mike Mosley): New to Jerry O'Connell's team for 1974 and raced by Billy Vukovich as the #4 Sugaripe Prune Special, with Jud Phillips as chief mechanic. Presumably the car used through 1974 by Vukovich and then through 1975 by Mike Mosley but the team had older 1972 Eagles available and those older cars may have been used at some races. Used again by Mosley in 1977 but O'Connell also acquired a new Lightning for that season. After Pocono in July 1978 the Eagle was sold to Jim McElreath, who had damaged his ex-Patrick 1973 Eagle at that race. Identified by Simmo Iskül from photographs as McElreath's #23 in 1979, and presumed to be the McElreath Racing #23 right up to 1981, although the ex-Patrick car was also repaired and used again. Subsequent history unknown, but at some point in the next 30 years the car was acquired by Chuck Haines and restored to it original Sugaripe Prune livery. For reasons currently unknown, Haines advertises the car as chassis 74-08.
  11. Eagle 73 [7306] (Jerry Grant): Patrick Racing acquired a new 1973 Eagle after the 1973 Indy 500, probably either chassis 7305 or 7306. It was fitted with a Ford V8 engine and used in practice at Ontario by Graham McRae as the #60 entry, but failed to qualify. Raced by Dick Simon at two later races that season. It may have been Steve Krisiloff's intended #60 Patrick entry at Indy in 1974, identified by Hungness as an Eagle "of 1973 vintage", but the car Krisiloff actually qualified was an older 1972 car. The 1973 car finally reappeared when raced by Krisiloff at Pocono and a few races later in the 1974 season, by which time it had a turbo Offy engine. Sold by Patrick Racing's chief crew George Bignotti to Fred W. Carrillo (San Juan Capistrano, CA) and entered as the #73 Spirit of Orange County entry for Jerry Grant at Ontario at the start of 1975. This became Carillo's AMC-engined car in late 1975 and early 1976, driven again by Grant, before Carillo acquired a newer Eagle. In 1977, this car was rebuilt to Offy specification and sold to Jim McElreath for son James to drive as the #26 McElreath Racing entry in 1977. Then for Jim McElreath in 1978. In 1979, McElreath acquired a second Eagle, apparently the ex-O'Connell 1974 car, which was numbered as the #23 with the older car continuing as #26. The older car continued in use until 1981. In 2017, it was reported that this was chassis 7306, and had remained at Jim McElreath's home in Texas from 1983 until his death in 2017. It was then owned by Angus Russell (Ormond Beach, FL).
  12. Riley 74 (Roger McCluskey): New for the 1974 season and entered by Lindsey Hopkins as the #1 English Leather entry for his reigning USAC champion driver Roger McCluskey. Retained for 1975 when it was the #15 Silver Floss Sauerkraut entry for McCluskey. Retained as a backup for 1976 when Mike Hiss drove it as the #11 Hopkins entry at Indy but did not qualify. Chuck Looper told Pete Klain that Hopkins traded three cars to Rolla Vollstedt, including the Riley, and Vollstedt sold it to Kenny Hamilton (Boise, ID) who fitted a Chevy engine and ran it as the #63 Spirit of Idaho in 1981, failing to qualify at Indy but starting at Riverside later that year. It then went to Terry Nish (Salt Lake City, UT) who used the suspension on a sprint car or supermodified. The chassis and other parts passed through several more owners until sold by Gary Trout (Zionsville, Indiana) to Pete Klain (Beverly Hills, MI). Klain visited Nish and bought the original uprights and started work on a complete rebuild with original fabricator Chuck Looper.
  13. Eagle 72 [7216] (Gary Bettenhausen): Built in the fall of 1972 as one of the two replacement Thermo King/Gerhardt cars after Malloy's crash at Indy in 1972. Used by Mike Hiss in the 1973 500 as the #6 car; then the #46 car used by Jim McElreath in practice in 1974; then the #46 car used by Rick Muther and Jan Opperman in practice in 1975; then the #45 car qualified by Gary Bettenhausen in 1976. After Eddie Miller wrecked the sister Gerhardt Eagle (7209) at Indy in 1976, 7216 was driven by Bettenhausen and Steve Krisiloff for the rest of 1976. Sold by Fred Gerhardt to Gary Howard when Gerhardt stopped racing but not raced by Howard, and sold to Bob Featherly (East Syracuse, NY) about 1980/81.
  14. Wildcat Mk 1 (Gordon Johncock): New for Gordy Johncock in 1975 as Patrick Racing's #20 Sinmast entry. Retained for 1976 and used by Johncock at short track events, winning at Trenton and twice finishing second at Milwaukee. Sold to Wildcat Racing Associates (Lynbrook, NY), a partnership of Frank Curtis, Gene Langsam and Walter Albert, with Curtis as chief mechanic and to be raced by Vern Schuppan as the #85 entry. The car was repossessed by lawyers at Pocono, and in August was sold to Danville barber Larry Cannon, who raced it for the rest of 1977 still entered as #85. Retained by Cannon for 1978, 1979 and 1980, qualifying for the Indy 500 in 1980. The car was again entered by Cannon in 1981 for guest drivers. Both Cannon's Wildcats were later bought by Maurice Kraines of Kraco and used as display cars at store openings and malls. Subsequent history unknown.
  15. Vollstedt 73 [13] (Tom Bigelow): New for 1973 as Vollstedt Enterprises' #17 Norton Spirit entry for Bill Simpson but Simpson crashed during practice for the Indy 500, and the car could not be repaired in time for qualifying. Simpson drove the car again in practice for the Pocono 500, but left the team, saying the car was not fast enough. Bob Harkey took over the drive, and qualified. At the Ontario 500, Tom Sneva was brought into the team, but again crashed the car preventing it from qualifying. The car was converted to the McLaren-style design of the 1972 car for 1974 when it was raced by Bigelow as the #27 Bryant Heating car. Raced by Bigelow at Indy in 1975 but its usage during the rest of that season is still to be determined. Rebuilt extensively for 1976 with its radiators moved to the nose, the same as the 1972 car which had been modified the previous season. Raced by Dick Simon as the #17 Bryant Heating entry in 1976 and in early 1977. It was then retained by the team as a backup car in 1978 and was fitted with an AMC turbo V8 for some races in 1979. Its last known appearance was when driven by Gary Bettenhausen at Pocono in June 1981, when it was described as "an old shovel-nose car". Rolla Vollstedt's son Bruce recalls that the tub sat around for some time, the sides having been taken off with the intention of using it build a different style car. The sides were later put back on, it was sold to to Joe Green, and Rolla rebuilt the car for him in about 2001.
  16. McLaren M16E [001] (Johnny Rutherford): New in 1975 for McLaren Cars main driver Johnny Rutherford as the #2 Gatorade entry. Raced at the three 500 mile events that year but Rutherford then moved to M16E-2 and this car was next seen at Michigan in 1976 when it was entered by Russ Polak's Polak Racing as the #80 for Larry Dickson. Raced by Dickson until the end of 1977. Then almost certainly the McLaren entered by Jack L. Rhoades as the #20 Scientific Drilling Controls car for John Martin at the 500 mile races in 1979 and for Dana Carter at Indy in 1980. Returned to Indy in 1981 as the #52 Rassey Engines car for Larry Rice. Then unknown until advertised in the late 1980s by Stephen A. Schwartz (Westport, CT), totally restored and in its original Gatorade livery. It was reacquired by McLaren and put on display in the Donington Museum for many years. It was at McLaren HQ in Woking in 2010.
  17. Eagle 72 [7205] (Jim McElreath): AAR's third team car in 1972 and entered at the Indy 500 as the #48 Mystery Eagle for Jerry Grant. Also raced by Grant at other races that season, taking pole position at Ontario with the first official lap at over 200 mph. The car was sold to engine specialist Bruce H. Crower for 1973 and entered as his #23 Crower Cams car as a test bed for various Chevrolet engine projects over the next three seasons. In late 1976, the car returned again as the #57, powered by Crower's own flat-6 engine. Crower then acquired a 1974 Eagle for 1978 and the '72 car was retired.
  18. Eagle 74 (Duane "Pancho" Carter): New to Robert L. 'Bob' Fletcher's Cobre Firestone team and entered as the #21 car for Jimmy Caruthers in 1974. Firestone withdrew from racing In August 1974 and Fletcher, who ran the largest Firestone dealership in the US, had to use Goodyear tyres in 1975. He also lost chief mechanic Jim McGee to Penske. This car became the white #11 entry for Duane Carter in 1975. Unknown in 1976 but presumably a backup car for Bobby Unser's regular #3 car. Sold to Carl Gehlhausen and entered for Spike Gehlhausen as the #19 PV Corp car at four races towards the end of the 1977 season and then through the 1978 season, until it was crashed heavily at Michigan in September. Gehlhausen then bought Pat Santello's '74 Eagle to replace it. The Michigan wreck is believed to have been repaired for 1979, and may be the car sold to Todd Gibson for 1980.
  19. Eagle 72 [7221] (George Snider): New to Leader Card Racers in time for the TWS race at the start of 1973. Raced by Mike Mosley as the #98 Leader Card entry. Then taken to the Indy 500 as a backup, renumbered #97, and qualified by Rick Muther. It was then Mosley's short track car, and raced by Muther at Pocono and by Johnny Parsons Jr at Ontario and at the late-season races. Presumably for Parsons again at Ontario in March 1974. Then Mosley's short track car when he wasn't using his new 1974 Eagle. Signs of repairs to the left side of this car allow it to be identified from 1975 onwards. It was raced by George Snider as the #97 at Ontario at the start of 1975, then by Steve Krisiloff in the Indy 500 as the #98 and later in the season as the #98 and then the #10. For 1976, the car was sold to Patrick Santello and was his #65 City of Syracuse or S&M Electric entry that season for Larry Dickson and Lee Kunzman. Then to Gus and Richard Hoffman (Milford, OH) of Hoffman Racing for 1977 and entered for Jerry Grant and later Joe Saldana as the #69. Driven again by Saldana in 1978 and 1979. Also appeared once for Bob Frey in 1980. Reappeared briefly in 1982 when it was entered by George T. Smith's GTS Racing as the #86 Empress Traveler for Al Loquasto. Sold by Smith to Chuck Haines (St Louis, MO) who sold it to Bob Colllings (Boston, MA) in April 1985. Retained by Collings and now forms part of the auto collection in The Collings Foundation (Stow, MA).
  20. Eagle 72 [7226] (Jimmy Caruthers): According to AAR records, this car was originally sold to Doug Champlin & Fred Carillo of Champ Carr, Inc. This is believed to be the team's #34 car for Sam Posey but he was bumped. The team then tried to disguise the #34 car as the team's backup #31 entry to allow Posey another try at qualifying, but the deception was spotted by IMS technical supervisor Frank DelRoy and both the #34 and #31 entries were disqualified. Photographs indicate this car was then used as a short track car for Jim McElreath in 1973. Carillo retained the car during 1974, but it was not seen. In early 1975, it was repainted as Carillo's "Spirit of Orange Country" entry, but finance could not be found, and it was sold to Alex Morales, who entered it as the #78 Alex Foods car for Jimmy Caruthers. Assumed to be the #78 car for the rest of 1975 and then the #78 Alex Foods second team car for Bobby Olivero in 1976. The team acquired a pair of new Lightnings for 1977 and the Eagle was not seen again. Unknown after November 1976. Nothing more is known until it was sold by Barry Green via Walter Goodwin to Kenneth Hodge (Ocala, FL) in 2004 to be fitted with a complete spare drive train that Ken had acquired from Smokey Yunick's 1973 Chevrolet turbo engine project.
  21. Coyote 70 ['70-1'] (Lee Brayton): New for AJ Foyt at the 1970 Indy 500 as the #7 Sheraton-Thompson entry. Also raced by Foyt at Milwaukee in June, but he used an older 1969 car on short tracks later in the season. Believed to have been Foyt's car at Ontario and Phoenix later in the season. It was then retained for short tracks in 1971, so was probably Foyt's car again at Phoenix in early 1971. It was also his car at Michigan in July, probably at the June Milwaukee, and possibly at other tracks. It may have been Donnie Allison's car at Ontario in September. In 1972, the car was sold to Lee Brayton, to replace the 1969 car that he had wrecked in Indy 500 practice. Raced by Brayton later in 1972, at one race in early 1973, and even at two races in early 1975. It was eventually acquired from Brayton by a sponsor, Harry Oppenhuizen, and was sold by Oppenhuizen to Bill Wiswedel (Holland, MI) in 1988. Owned by Wiswedel and then his son, also named Bill, ever since.
  22. Eagle 74 (Billy Vukovich): New to Robert L. 'Bob' Fletcher's Cobre Firestone team and entered as the #55 car for Jerry Grant in 1974. Firestone withdrew from racing In August 1974 and Fletcher, who ran the largest Firestone dealership in the US, had to use Goodyear tyres in 1975. He also lost chief mechanic Jim McGee to Penske. This car became the blue #6 entry for Billy Vukovich in 1975 and then the #3 entry for Bobby Unser in 1976. Probably the car raced by Unser at Phoenix at the start of 1977. To Carl Gehlhausen for 1978 and used by John Mahler as Gehlhausen's #39 entry at the 1978 Indy 500. Also the #39 Gehlhausen entry for Al Loquasto through 1979 until he was promoted to the Fletcher team after Steve Krisiloff quit the team. Phil Caliva drove Gehlhausen's Eagle at Ontario, and it was then sold to Walter L. Medlin who entered as the #32 car for Tony Bettenhausen II at three races in early 1980. It reappeared for Bubby Jones as Medlin's #58 entry at the 1981 Indy 500 but did not qualify. The car remained with Medlin and is part of a collection of unrestored cars photographed on occasions since.
  23. Eagle 72 [7212] (Dick Simon): To Dick Simon, fitted with a Foyt-Ford V8 turbo engine and first raced as his #44 Travelodge entry at Phoenix in November 1972, where he was second fastest in Friday practice. Raced by Simon through 1973 and 1974 as the #44, retaining its Travelodge sponsorship until mid-1974. Returned in 1975 with Bruce Cogle Ford backing and in 1976 with Lan Hairpieces and later Robyn CB sponsorship when it was driven by Roger Rager. Not at Indy in 1977 but later in the year it was acquired by Nick Krantz and entered for Phil Threshie, still as the #44 but now with Mr. Golden Sunflower sponsorship. Crashed by Threshie in practice for the 1977 California 500 at Ontario and not seen again.
  24. Finley 73 (Johnny Parsons Jr): This car is often described as a Fleagle (e.g. the 1974 Hungness and the 1973 Daily Reports) but the descriptions are sufficiently consistent to be able to pinpoint this as a 1973 car built by Vatis Chief Mechanic Bill Finley (Hungness 1974 p124) as the car used by Parsons at both the 1973 and 1974 Indy 500s. All other references to Finley-Eagles, Finleys and Fleagles wearing #94 in 1973, 1974 and 1975 are presumed to be this same car. In 1975, the Vatis team acquired at old 1972 Eagle which was run as the #93 car with the 1973 Finley retaining the number #94. In 1976, a new Eagle was built on a "spare tub" and took the number #93 after which the 1973 Finley appears to have been retired.
  25. Eagle 74 (Al Unser): Al Unser started the 1974 season in one of two second-hand 1973 Eagles acquired by Vel's Parnelli Jones Racing, before moving to a new 1974 Eagle in time for the Phoenix 150 in mid-March. The team bought three or four 1974 Eagles, so Unser may have used more than one Eagle during the 1974 season, but for now, it is assumed all his results were in the same car. Vel's Parnelli retained the same Eagles for 1975, but the "super team" were in decline, and only appeared at the three 500-mile races. Again, it is assumed here that Unser used the same car as in 1974. The team was disbanded in July, when when it returned, it focused on the new Parnelli VPJ6. The subsequent history of the Unser Eagle is unknown.
  26. Coyote 74 ['74-1'] (Rick Muther): New for the start of the 1974 season, and raced by AJ Foyt as Foyt Enterprises' #14 Gilmore Racing entry at Ontario, Phoenix and Trenton. Foyt crashed in practice at Trenton and returned to base. He then raced a new, second,1974 Coyote at the Indy 500, and the only times this older car was seen was as his #10 backup car used in practice for the Indy 500, and then as the #10 entry driven by George Snider at Michigan in September. This older car was almost certainly the team's backup car at the start of the 1975 season, when it was the #10 entry prepared for Joe Leonard at Ontario in March 1975, and raced by Rick Muther after Leonard failed a medical. Photographs show that the same car was used by Foyt at short track races that season: Phoenix in March, Trenton in April, Milwaukee in June and August, Trenton in September, and Phoenix in November. This car reappeared at the start of 1976, now updated with the same style of bodywork used on the other 1974 car the previous year, and was raced by Foyt at Phoenix in March, Trenton in May, Milwaukee in June, and Trenton In August, where Foyt clipped the wall and retired with broken suspension. The car was not seen at all during 1977, and probably not in 1978, although this still remains uncertain. This car was not in the Foyt auction in 1992, and its current whereabouts are not known. One possibility is that it was extensively rebuilt as the 1978 car.
  27. Eagle 74 [7406] (Mario Andretti): The 1975 Hungness year book says that Mario's Andretti's #21 car was the same #5 car he had driven in 1974. The car was wrecked at Indy in 1975 and the 1976 Hungness appears to say that the repaired tub was used to rebuild the Routh team's ex-Patrick Eagle 74. Presumed to have been Andretti's car from the start of 1974 until his wreck at Indy in 1975. The "original" #5 1974 Eagle was advertised for sale in the early 1990s, mentioning chassis number 7406, but it is not clear whether this is the ex-Routh car or something different.
  28. Eagle 72 [7202] (Billy Scott): New to Doug Champlin & Fred Carillo of Champ Carr, Inc.and entered at Indy in 1972 as the #34 Norris Industries entry for Sam Posey. This car was not seen in the Champ Carr team during 1973, but was presumably the #31 entry at the Indy 500, that Carillo substituted illegally for the team's #34 car chassis 7226) which had already been bumped. To Marvin Webster (Mill Valley, CA) for 1974 and his #76 Webster Racing entry for the next three seasons, although Webster also had a 1966 Eagle used on short tracks. At Ontario in September 1976, John Mahler was entered in a "Webster-Offy" but a photograph shows that it was the team's usual Eagle. It was wrecked during the race and no Marvin Webster entry appears again. History then unknown, but later in the collection of Bruce McCaw (Seattle, WA). From McCaw it went to Ray Cooke (Langley, WA), and in late 1995 was advertised in Autoweek by Craig Coyer, a Seattle used car dealer who had taken it as trade on a Porsche. It was bought from him in 1996 by Greg Scott (Del Mar, CA), who found it to be virtually complete. Scott ran the car in the Victory Lane/VARA Indy Car Historics at Fontana from about 1997 to 2001 or 2002. It also appeared at Del Mar's 'Vehicles of Character' car show in September 2004. Since then, it has been in storage.
  29. Gerhardt 68 (Bob Harkey): Don Gerhardt had a new #11 Thermo King Auto Air Cond entry from the start of 1968 and it is assumed that this Gerhardt-Offy turbo was new at Hanford in April, replacing the #16 car used in 1967. Art Pollard continued as driver for the opening races of the season but during practice for the Indy 500, he was poached by the Granatelli STP team to drive one of the new Lotus 56s. Gary Bettenhausen took over the Gerhardt drive for the Indy 500 and for the rest of the season. Bettenhausen drove the '68 car again at the start of 1969 before the team's new wedge design was ready. The '68 car was then driven by Bruce Walkup as the team's #16 entry at the 1969 Indy 500, by which time the car had a lower, flatter nose cone and had been converted to outboard front suspension. Bettenhausen raced it again at Langhorne in June and Trenton in July, but at the latter race it was crashed heavily. Its movements over the next couple of years are not yet understood, but in late 1971 or early 1972, it became #99 Joe Hunt Magneto Spl entered by Joseph B. Hunt (Los Angeles, CA). It was driven in practice by Bob Harkey and Jerry Karl at the 1972 Indy 500 in highly modified form, but did not attempt to qualify. It continued to evolve even further over the next three seasons, and was the car that Harkey tried to qualify for the California 500 as late as 1975. The two Gerhardts were retained by Hunt until he died in June 1985, and about a year later they were sold by his widow Mary to Jack Thompson (Doylestown, PA).
  30. McLaren M16C [M16C-2?] (Larry McCoy): New for McLaren Cars at the start of 1973, and raced by Johnny Rutherford at the early short-track events. Possibly used by him at short track events later in the year. Also driven by Peter Revson as the #15 Gulf entry at Pocono and Ontario in 1973, taking pole position at both events. By early November, it had been acquired by George Walther, replacing the older M16 in which Salt Walther had been badly injured at the 1973 Indy 500, and was prepared by Dayton-Walther chief mechanic Tommie Smith from the team's new base in Dayton, Ohio. It was driven by Salt at the Indy 500 in 1974 as the #77 Dayton Walther Spl, but the Walthers then acquired M16C/6, retaining M16C/2 as his #33 spare car at the Indy 500 in 1975 and 1976. It was raced by Bob Harkey as the #33 Dayton-Walther entry at Indy and Pocono in 1975, and by David Hobbs at Indy in 1976. How it was used during the rest of the 1975 and 1976 season is unclear but it was quite possibly used as by Salt Walther a short-track car. Relegated to the team's third car for 1977 when Walther acquired M16C/5 from McLaren. Sold with M16C/6 to Jerry Karl/William R. Compton Sr for 1978. M16C/6 was converted to Chevrolet V8 power and entered by Tonco Trailer until 1981 and M16C/2 was kept as a backup until M16C/6 was wrecked at Riverside in 1981. M16C/2 was then used for the last three races of the 1981 season. Both M16Cs were sold to Chuck Haines (St Louis, MO) but M16C/2 had moved to Ron Rickard (San Diego, CA) by 1986 when he drove it at the Palm Springs historics. Sold to Tony Roberts and Duncan Fox (Auckland, New Zealand) in 1997 and used in historics with an aluminium 355 ci Chevrolet V8 from 1998 to 2000. Sold to the Mathews Collection still with its Chevrolet engine. From Mathews to Aaron Lewis (Cessnock, NSW, Australia) in 2009.
  31. McLaren M16C [3] (Bobby Allison): To Roger Penske for Gary Bettenhausen to drive during the 1973 season as the #5 Sunoco DX car, and used by him at all races that season. Entered for Mike Hiss as the #68 Norton Spirit entry at Indianapolis and Michigan in 1974. Then the #16 CAM2 Motor Oil entry for Bobby Allison at four long-track races in 1975. Then raced by Mario Andretti for Penske as the #6 in 1976 at the Indy 500 and Pocono. Sold to Bill Simpson later in 1976 (still as #6) together with M16C/4. It then became part of Teddy Yip's Theodore Racing team in 1977 as their #39 but was crashed very heavily by Clay Regazzoni in Indy practice. The wrecked car was cubed by Yip.
  32. Kingfish 72 ['2'] (Jerry Karl): The second new 1972 Grant King car appeared for the first time at the Indy 500 as the #15 car for Steve Krisiloff. As the other 1972 car was destroyed in Merle Bettenhausen's accident at the 1972 Michigan 200, it would be reasonable to assume this is the 1972 Kingfish acquired by Carl Gehlhausen's Mid-West Manufacturing Dura-pot team. A Racing Pictorial photograph shows that it first appeared as the team's #58 entry at Phoenix in November 1972, but driver Larry Dickson did not start. It was raced as the #58 by Dickson at the start of 1973, and was driven by Johnny Parsons Jr, Arnie Knepper, Tom Bigelow and Tom Sneva later that season. The Gehlhausen team only made a couple of appearances with the Kingfish in 1974, but made a more concerted effort in 1975, with the Kingfish now as the #38 entry, raced initially by Jerry Karl, and then by Al Loquasto, Jerry Sneva and Mike Hiss (who crashed it) in practice for the Indy 500. Spike Gehlhausen, Carl's son, was then given his first chance in the car after the 500 and kept the drive to the end of the season. The Gehlhausens then acquired a McLaren M16 as the #19 Spirit of Indiana entry, and the Kingfish acted as backup until an Eagle was acquired in mid-1977. Subsequent history unknown but at some point the car was repainted with Sta-On Glaze livery, Gehlhausen's 1979 sponsor. By 2008, it was part of a collection of unrestored Indy cars owned by Walter Medlin.
  33. Eagle 72 [7219] (George Follmer): New to Patrick Racing for 1973 and identified as their #60 STP entry at the 1973 Indy 500 for Graham McRae. Then became Wally Dallenbach's #40 car after the Indy 500, winning at Milwaukee and Ontario. Sold to Richard Beith (Danville, CA) for 1974 and entered as the #18 American Kids Racer car for Steve Krisiloff and Bill Simpson. Returned in 1975 for George Follmer, now as the #28, but only at Ontario and Indy. Leased from Beith by Warner Hodgdon (San Bernardino, CA) for 1976 and raced by Billy Scott at the Indy 500 before returning to Beith for three more seasons, appearing mainly at the 500-mile races at Ontario and Indianapolis. Retained by Beith until sold to Chuck Haines (St Louis, MO) in October 2005. Haines advertised it in early 2006 still in Beith's American Kids livery. Bought from Haines by Aaron Lewis (Cessnock, NSW, Australia) in September 2008 and restored for him by Walter Goodwin between 2008 and 2011 to McRae's 1973 livery. Ran at the vintage demonstration at the Indy 500 in 2011 and 2012 and then on display at the Riverside International Automotive Museum. Sold at the RM Auctions sale at Monterey in August 2014 to Milton Verret (Austin, TX), but bought back by Lewis in 2018. Sold to Carlos de Quesada (Tampa, FL) at Indy in May 2019.
  34. Coyote 74 ['74-1'] (Joe Leonard): New for the start of the 1974 season, and raced by AJ Foyt as Foyt Enterprises' #14 Gilmore Racing entry at Ontario, Phoenix and Trenton. Foyt crashed in practice at Trenton and returned to base. He then raced a new, second,1974 Coyote at the Indy 500, and the only times this older car was seen was as his #10 backup car used in practice for the Indy 500, and then as the #10 entry driven by George Snider at Michigan in September. This older car was almost certainly the team's backup car at the start of the 1975 season, when it was the #10 entry prepared for Joe Leonard at Ontario in March 1975, and raced by Rick Muther after Leonard failed a medical. Photographs show that the same car was used by Foyt at short track races that season: Phoenix in March, Trenton in April, Milwaukee in June and August, Trenton in September, and Phoenix in November. This car reappeared at the start of 1976, now updated with the same style of bodywork used on the other 1974 car the previous year, and was raced by Foyt at Phoenix in March, Trenton in May, Milwaukee in June, and Trenton In August, where Foyt clipped the wall and retired with broken suspension. The car was not seen at all during 1977, and probably not in 1978, although this still remains uncertain. This car was not in the Foyt auction in 1992, and its current whereabouts are not known. One possibility is that it was extensively rebuilt as the 1978 car.
  35. Cicada 75 (Dan Murphy): A new more radical Cicada intended for a Ferrari 512 engine was shown being constructed in December 1974. However, it had an orthodox turbo Offy engine when it appeared for Indy in 1975 where Dan Murphy and Bob Harkey were unable to get it up to speed, and neither made an attempt to qualify. The car was next seen in 1979 when it was entered by for Walter L. Medlin at the Indy 500 for Bill Puterbaugh, with Tom Smith as chief crew, but did not qualify. It was later driven for Medlin at the two Milwaukee races by Puterbaugh, retiring from both. It was sponsored at these races by the SST Air Museum in Kissimmee, Florida, which Medlin had bought in 1978 to house his collection of Ferraris and other classics, but was forced to sell shortly afterwards. Medlin became renowned in the 1980s and 1990s for his disputes with the tax authorities, and hit the news again when Hurricane Charley blew down the barn containing his collection. Only when his Ferrari 330 P4 was seized by the IRS in 2005 was the matter settled. The Cicada remained in his possession and was observed on a transporter heading for Indianapolis in April 2007.

Sources

The identification of individual cars in these results is based on the material presented elsewhere in this site and may in some cases contradict the organisers' original results.

The foundation for this research is the work done by the late Phil Harms collating the results of all AAA, USAC and CART races, including the period covered here. His data was refined by Michael Ferner who added more information before making it available to OldRacingCars.com. Since the start of the USAC project on OldRacingCars.com in 2004, a wealth of further information has been gleaned from the Carl Hungness and Donald Davidson Yearbooks, Formula and On Track magazines, USAC News, National Speed Sport News and other published sources. Gerry Measures has also provided much information from his files as have others on TNF and Trackforum. Since 2009, the work of Simmo Iskül and others identifying cars from period photographs has has moved this research forward significantly.

All comments, clarifications, corrections and additions are most welcome. Please email Allen (allen@oldracingcars.com) if you can help in any way with our research.